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MANET Working Group                                         Sanghyun Ahn
Internet Draft                                       University of Seoul
Expires: November 4, 2013                                 Chong-Kwon Kim
                                               Seoul National University
                                                            May 13, 2013


                  AODV Extensions for MANET Clustering
                 draft-ahn-manet-clustering-aodv-01.txt

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Abstract

   This document describes an extention on AODV [1] so that clustering
   of MANET nodes can be allowed for the improvement of MANET
   scalability. MANET clustering requires some MANET nodes to become
   Cluster Heads (CHs) and each non-CH MANET nodes to belong to any one
   appropriate cluster which is represented by a CH node.In this draft,
   AODV control messages are extended for MANET clustering.

Table of Contents

   1.  Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  Extensions on AODV Control Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       4.1 Cluster Anouncement (CLAN) Message Format  . . . . . . . .  4
       4.2 Cluster Join (CLJN) Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       4.3 Cluster Giveup (CLGU) Message Format . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   6.  Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7





























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1.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


2.  Introduction

   In a MANET where a subset of nodes grouping together such as in an
   office environment with a set of departments, MANET clustering is a
   good choice for the efficient communication among MANET nodes.
   For MANET clustering, some nodes are required to act as cluster
   heads (CHs) and the others as cluster members (non-CH nodes).
   A CH announces its existence by sending out CH announcement messages
   and each non-CH node joins to any one cluster after receiving one or
   more CH announcement messages from its nearby CHs. The detailed
   MANET clustering architecture is defined in a companion draft [2].

   For this MANET clustering architecture to work in the MANET using
   AODV [1] as its routing protocol, AODV is required to be extended.
   Therefore, in this draft, we define how to extend AODV for the MANET
   clustering architecture of [2].


3.  Terminology

   Cluster Head         The representative node of a cluster; the
                        cluster head receives data from its cluster
                        members and forwards the data to the cluster
                        head of the cluster to which the destination
                        belongs, and vice versa.

   Cluster Member       The node belonging to a cluster

   Cluster Size         The maximum number of hops from a cluster head
                        to any one of its cluster members; assumed to
                        be k

   Cluster Announcement Message
                        The message sent by the cluster head to its
                        k-hop neighbors to indicate its willingness of
                        forwarding data from its cluster members

   Cluster Join Message The message sent by a node wishing to act as a
                        cluster member to the cluster head upon
                        receiving a Cluster Announcement message




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   Cluster Giveup Message
                        The message sent by a CH wishing to give up
                        its role as a cluster head to its members


4.  Extensions on AODV Control Messages

   For the cluster maintenance, we newly define AODV control messages.


4.1 Cluster Anouncement (CLAN) Message Format

   If a node wishes to act as a CH, it should send out a Cluster
   Announcement message to its k-hop neighbors, where k is the cluster
   size.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |A|J|G|       Reserved          |   Hop Count   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Cluster ID                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Destination IP Address                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Originator IP Address                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type           5

      A              Announcement flag (= 1)

      Cluster ID     The cluster identifier; a randomly generated
                     identifier by the CH which originates this CLAN
                     message

      Hop Count      The cluster size; the maximum number of hops from
                     the Originator IP Address to a cluster member

      Destination IP Address
                     The broadcast address (i.e., 255.255.255.255)

      Originator IP Address
                     The IP Address of the node which originates this
                     Cluster Announcement message






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4.2 Cluster Join (CLJN) Message Format

   Once a node receives a CLAN message, it replies back to the
   corresponding CH (i.e., the originator of the CLAN message) with a
   Cluster Join message, if it wishes to join the cluster announced
   by the CLAN message.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |A|J|G|       Reserved          |   Hop Count   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Cluster ID                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Destination IP Address                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Originator IP Address                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type           5

      J              Join flag (= 1)

      Cluster ID     The cluster identifier; This is copied from the
                     Cluster ID field of the received corresponding
                     CLAN message

      Hop Count      The number of hops from the Destination IP Address
                     to the Originator IP Address; This is set to the
                     Hop Count value of the received CLAN message minus
                     one

      Destination IP Address
                     The IP Address of the node which originates this
                     Cluster Join message

      Originator IP Address
                     The IP Address of the node which originated the
                     corresponding Cluster Announcement message

   If a node receives a CLAN message, it decreases the Hop Count value
   of the CLAN message by one and, if the modified Hop Count value is
   greater than 1, it forwards it to its 1-hop neighbors. Otherwise, it
   does not forward any more. And if it wants to join the cluster, it
   sends out a CLJN message back to the originator node of the CLAN
   message.





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4.3 Cluster Giveup (CLGU) Message Format

   If a CH decides to give up being a CH, it sends a CLGU message to its
   k-hop neighbors. Only the cluster members leave the cluster specified
   in the CLGU message which can be identified by the Cluster ID and
   the Originator IP Address field values.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |A|J|G|       Reserved          |   Hop Count   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Cluster ID                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Destination IP Address                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Originator IP Address                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type           5

      G              Giveup flag (= 1)

      Cluster ID     The cluster identifier; This is copied from the
                     Cluster ID field of the received corresponding
                     CLAN message

      Hop Count      The cluster size; the maximum number of hops from
                     the Originator IP Address to a cluster member

      Destination IP Address
                     The broadcast address (i.e., 255.255.255.255)

      Originator IP Address
                     The IP Address of the node which originates this
                     Cluster Giveup message


   Even though the Destination IP Address is set to the broadcast
   address, only the cluster members leave the cluster and reselect
   other clusters to join.


5.  Operation

   TBD.





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6.  Other Considerations

   TBD.


References

   [1] C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer and S. Das, "Ad hoc On-Demand
       Distance Vector (AODV) Routing," RFC 3561, July 2003.
   [2] S. Ahn and H. Kim, "Architecture for MANET Clustering,"
       draft-ahn-manet-clustering-architecture-01.txt, May 2013.


Authors' Addresses

   Sanghyun Ahn
   University of Seoul
   90, Cheonnong-dong, Tongdaemun-gu
   Seoul 130-743
   Korea
   Email: ahn@uos.ac.kr

   Chong-kwon Kim
   Seoul National University
   1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu
   Seoul 151-742
   Korea
   Email: ckim@snu.ac.kr























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