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MANET Working Group                                         Sanghyun Ahn
Internet Draft                                       University of Seoul
Expires: June 11, 2017                                 December 19, 2016


                The IPv6 Hop-by-Hop Option for Geocast
                draft-ahn-its-geocast-hbh-option-00.txt

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Abstract

   For IPv6-based ITS applications, ITS data packets are required to
   be delivered to a specific destination area, which is called geocast.
   In this draft, a new IPv6 Hop-by-Hop option, the IPv6 Geocast
   Hop-by-Hop option, with the geographical information of the
   destination area and the forwarding mechanism information is defined.


Table of Contents

   1.  Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  Hop-by-Hop Option for Geocast  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   5.  Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
































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1.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


2.  Introduction

   For the support of IPv6-based ITS (Intelligent Transportation System)
   applications, ITS data packets are required to be delivered based
   on the geographical location (longitude and latitude) information of
   the destination ITS node or area. The latter is called geocast
   [Geocast].

   From the considerations in [Geo-Problem], in this draft, we define
   the new IPv6 Geocast Hop-by-Hop option with the geo-location
   information of the center point and the radius information of
   the destination area. Also, the IPv6 Geocast Hop-by-Hop option
   has the fields for the geographical unicast mechanism
   from the originator to the center point of the destination area and
   the geographical broadcast mechanism from the center point to
   all the ITS nodes in the destination area.


3. Terminology

   ITS node
      A vehicle or a device that may generate ITS-related data
      in the form of IPv6 datagrams

   Geo-location
      The location of an ITS node represented in the form of
      longitude and latitude. The geo-location information
      is represented in the form of the World Geodetic System 1984
      (WGS84) [WGS-84] formatted coordinates.

   Geographical Forwarding
      IPv6 datagram forwarding based on the geo-location information
      of the source and the destination ITS node or area.
      Geographical unicast/broadcast and geocast belong to geographical
      forwarding.

   Geographical Unicast (Geo-unicast)
      IPv6 datagram forwarding based on geo-location information
      to a specific single target ITS node which can be a vehicle or
      roadside unit (RSU) or any type of an IPv6 node.



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   Geo-Broadcast
      IPv6 datagram broadcasting to all the ITS nodes within a specific
      geographical area based on geo-location information.
      It can be done by flooding, etc.

   Geocast
      IPv6 datagram forwarding from an ITS node to the ITS nodes
      in a specific target destination area based on geo-location
      information. Geocast is performed by geographical unicast to
      the center point of the destination area and, then, geographical
      broadcast within the destination area.

   Destination Area
      The geographical area in which this IPv6 datagram needs to be
      forwarded by geocast; that is, all the ITS nodes in the
      destination area are supposed to receive this IPv6 datagram.

   Originator
      The source ITS node that has generated this IPv6 datagram.

   Sender
      The previous hop ITS node that has forwarded this IPv6 datagram.


4. Hop-by-Hop Option for Geocast

   The format of the Geocast Hop-by-Hop option is as follows:























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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                   |  Option Type  |  Opt Data Len |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |C| GU Ty |GB Ty|N|E|S|O|U| Rsvd|     Location Uncertainty      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Timestamp           |    Destination Area Radius    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  Destination Area Latitude                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  Destination Area Longitude                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Sender Latitude                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Sender Longitude                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Originator Latitude                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Originator Longitude                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   IPv6 Source Address
      The Source IPv6 Address field of the IPv6 datagram is set to
      the IPv6 address of the originator.

   IPv6 Destination Address
      The Destination IPv6 Address field of the IPv6 datagram is set to
      the geocast group address to be assigned by IANA.

   Option Type
      The IPv6 Option Type code for IPv6 geocast; to be assigned
      by IANA.

   Option Data Length
      The number of octets of the option data field of this option.

   C Flag
      This indicates the geographical casting type. 'C = 0' implies
      geographical unicast and 'C = 1' implies geocast.
      Thus, in this case, C = 1.









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   Geo-Unicast Type
      This indicates the geo-unicast forwarding type used
      for the delivery of the IPv6 datagram from the originator to
      the center point of the destination area; e.g., Greedy
      Forwarding (GF) [GF], Contension-Based Forwarding (CBF) [CBF],
      Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR), Geographic Source
      Routing (GS), etc.

   Geo-Broadcast Type
      This indicates the geo-broadcasting type used for the delivery
      of the IPv6 datagram from a node in a specific area to
      all the other nodes in the area; e.g., flooding, etc.

   N Flag
      If N = 1, it indicates the latitude is north relative to the
      Equator. Otherwise, it indicates the latitude is south of
      the Equator.

   E Flag
      If E = 1, it indicates the longitude is east of the Prime
      Meridian. Otherwise, it indicates the longitude is west of
      the Prime Meridian.

   S Flag
      If S = 1, the Sender Latitude Degree and the Sender Longitude
      Degree fields are specified. Otherwise, those fields do not exist.

   O Flag
      If O = 1, the Originator Latitude Degree and the Originator
      Longitude Degree fields are specified. Otherwise, those fields
      do not exist.

   U Flag
      If U = 1, the Location Unicertainty field is specified.
      Otherwise, the field is not specified.

   Reserved
      The reserved field for further extensions of this option.

   Location Unicertainty
      The uncertainty of the location (in centimeters).

   Timestamp
      Time when this IPv6 datagram was generated in seconds since
      the epoch (00:00:00 UTC on 1 January 1970).

   Destination Area Radius
      The radius of the destination area (in meters).


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   Destination Area Latitude
      A range of 0 - 90 degrees (in 1/10 micro degrees) north or
      south of the Equator (northern or southern hemisphere,
      respectively) of the center point of the destination area.

   Destination Area Longitude
      A range of 0 - 180 degrees (in 1/10 micro degrees) east or
      west of the Prime Meridian of the center point of
      the destination area.

   Sender Latitude
      A range of 0 - 90 degrees (in 1/10 micro degrees) north or
      south of the Equator (northern or southern hemisphere,
      respectively) of the sender.

   Sender Longitude
      A range of 0 - 180 degrees (in 1/10 micro degrees) east or
      west of the Prime Meridian of the sender.

   Originator Latitude
      A range of 0 - 90 degrees (in 1/10 micro degrees) north or
      south of the Equator (northern or southern hemisphere,
      respectively) of the originator.

   Originator Longitude
      A range of 0 - 180 degrees (in 1/10 micro degrees) east or
      west of the Prime Meridian of the originator.


5. Other Considerations

   TBD.


















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References

   [Geocast] J.C. Navas, T. Imielinski, "GeoCast - Geographic Addressing
       and Routing. The 3rd Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on
       Mobile Computing and Networking, 1997.
   [Geo-Problem] S. Ahn, "Problem Statements of IPv6-based Geographical
       Forwarding for ITS", IETF Draft draft-ahn-its-geo-problem-00.txt,
       2016.
   [WGS-84] Geodesy and Geophysics Department, DoD., "World Geodetic
       System 1984", January 2000, <http://earth-info.nga.mil/
       GandG/publications/tr8350.2/wgs84fin.pdf>.
   [GF] B. N. Karp, H. T. Kung, "GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless
       Routing for Wireless Networks", ACM/IEEE International
       Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom), 2000.
   [CBF] H. Fu.b.ler, J. Widmer, M. Ka.semann, M. Mauve, H. Hartenstein,
       "Contention-based Forwarding for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks",
       Ad Hoc Networks, 2003.


Author's Address

   Sanghyun Ahn
   University of Seoul
   90, Cheonnong-dong, Tongdaemun-gu
   Seoul 130-743
   Korea
   Email: ahn@uos.ac.kr
























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