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Human Rights Protocol Considerations Research Group           S. Abraham
Internet-Draft                                                 CIS India
Intended status: Informational                               MP. Canales
Expires: January 16, 2018                             Derechos Digitales
                                                                 J. Hall
                                                                     CDT
                                                          O. Khrustaleva
                                                     American University
                                                            N. ten Oever
                                                              ARTICLE 19
                                                             C. Runnegar
                                                                    ISOC
                                                                S. Sahib
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                           July 15, 2017


       Implementation Report for HTTP Status Code 451 (RFC 7725)
                        draft-451-imp-report-00

Abstract

   This report describes implementation experience between various
   components working with the HTTP Status Code 451 [RFC7725], a risk
   assessment and recommendation for improvements.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 16, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.




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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Vocabulary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Target audiences  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Who is likely to implement the 451 status code? . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  Server operators  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.2.  Intermediaries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Who is likely to use the 451 status code data?  . . . . . . .   4
     5.1.  Browser vendors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     5.2.  End users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     5.3.  Researchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     5.4.  Civil society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     5.5.  Governments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   6.  Current Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   7.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   8.  Trends and observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   9.  Potential negative or positive impacts  . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   10. What are features of a blocking reporting infrastructure that
       would be useful?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   11. What features of blocking events are supported by the
       existing 451 status code, and what features do we need to
       add?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   12. Appendix: Legal Realities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   13. Russia  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     13.1.  Federal Law of 27 July 2006  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     13.2.  "Yarovaya laws"  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   14. Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     14.1.  Blocking by courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   15. Iran  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     15.1.  Blocking by government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     15.2.  Blocking by courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   16. India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     16.1.  Blocking by the government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     16.2.  Blocking by courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     16.3.  Takedowns by web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   17. United States of America  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     17.1.  Section 512 of the DMCA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13



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     17.2.  Other US-based forms of takedown . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   18. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Introduction

   This document evaluates the usage of HTTP Status Code 451, which was
   standardized by the IETF in February 2016 [RFC7725].  This
   implementation report aims to illuminate whether the status code does
   what it set out to do ("provide transparency in circumstances where
   issues of law or public policy affect server operations"), the
   different ways it is being used, positive and negative impacts the
   standard might have and we end with suggestions for improvement of
   the standard.

2.  Vocabulary

   Blocking  The act of making an HTTP resource inaccessible to a class
      of users.

   Resource  A top-level information object served by an HTTP server
      (e.g., HTML page).

   Subresource  An information object served within the context of a
      top-level Resource (e.g., JavaScript, Image, etc.)

   Server Operator  An entity or an individual operating an HTTP server.

   HTTP status  For each response, HTTP servers return a numerical
      status code (e.g., 400 (OK), 403 (unauthorized), etc.) described
      by IANA https://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes/http-
      status-codes.xhtml.

   Response  When an HTTP Server responds to a request, it sends a
      Response, made up of header fields and a body (See:
      https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7725#section-3

   Legal demand  A verbal or written request grounded in law or
      regulation from an Authority to a Server Operator to Blocking a
      Resource.

   Authority  A government or government-licensed entity mandating
      blocking of a resource directly or that may institute laws that
      indirectly require blocking of a resource.

   Complainant  A party making a Legal demand; may or may not be an
      Authority (e.g., the US DMCA allows a copyright holder to demand
      takedown).



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3.  Target audiences

4.  Who is likely to implement the 451 status code?

4.1.  Server operators

   Server operators that are being confronted with an order from a legal
   authority can use the HTTP Status Code to communicate to third
   parties why the resource is not available on the server.

4.2.  Intermediaries

   Intermediaries such as Internet Service Providers, Content
   Distribution Networks and other might be obligated by a legal
   authority in their operational jurisdiction to filter certain
   content.  The HTTP status code would add transparency to this
   practice.

5.  Who is likely to use the 451 status code data?

5.1.  Browser vendors

   Browser vendors might implement functionality to communicate the
   presence of a HTTP status code 451 to a user.

5.2.  End users

   End users will be informed about why the information they are trying
   to access is not available, instead of merely concluding that the
   content is not available due to other reasons (e.g., 404
   unavailable).

5.3.  Researchers

   Researchers might want to scan for the prevalence of blocking, as
   well as trends in blocking behavior.

5.4.  Civil society

   Civil society may want to use instances of HTTP status code 451 to
   highlight censorship and censorship trends, to challenge blocking.

5.5.  Governments

   Governments might want to verify compliance with blocking orders and
   use HTTP status code 451 to do so on the networks in their
   jurisdiction.




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6.  Current Usage

7.  Overview

   In the majority of cases in which HTTP status code 451 is being
   deployed [Censys], the status code reads as follows - "451
   Unavailable For Legal Reasons" or "451" or "451 Unknown Error" or
   "451 Error" or "451 Unavailable For Legal Reasons (burned)" or "451
   OK".  The Page Title could say "404 Not Found" or "Blocked" or "451
   -" or "Restricted access" or "Bloqueado por ordem judicial" ("Blocked
   by judicial order") or "Sito censurato" ("Censored site") or
   "Доступ
   ограничен"
   ("Access is restricted") or
   "Зелёная
   точка -
   доступ к за&#10
   87;рашиваемо&#1
   084;у ресурсу
   ограничен"
   ("Zelenaya tochka" - Internet and TV provider - access to the
   requested resource is restricted")or "Violazione del bispensiero" or
   "Please report sexual abuse against children to the Swedish National
   Bureau of Investigation!" or "Copyright Notice" or "451 RKN Redirect"
   (RKN is likely Russia's Roskomnadzor) or "ATTENZIONE!! - POLIZIA
   POSTALE E DELLE COMUNICAZIONI - PAGINA BLOCCATA" ("Attention! -
   Postal and Communications Policy - Blocked Page") or "451 Unavailable
   For Legal Reasons 本网站由于国&#2
   3478;政策而不可用" (Chinese:
   "This site is not available due to national policy").

   The hosts that were observed implementing the status code are located
   in Russia, United States of America, Singapore, Czech Republic,
   Thailand, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria,
   Hungary, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Ukraine, Norway, Finland,
   Kazakhstan, United Arab Emirates, Japan, China, Philippines and
   Australia.  In some cases - the visitor to the website is provided
   some context for the block - for example, a take-down notice for
   copyright infringment - in other cases the visitor is encouraged to
   cooperate with law enforcement agencies.  The page title may have
   information that does not always make sense in the context of the
   error code, for example when the title says "404 Not Found" but the
   page is a 451 response body.  These observations are based an
   examination of the search results from Censys.io on 15 July 2017
   which featured 526 IPv4 Hosts of which 17 were included in the list
   of "Top Million Websites".





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   Several large content providers are now supporting the HTTP 451
   Status Code, such as [Github] and [Reddit], whereas other content
   providers such as [Twitter], [Facebook], and [Youtube] are currently
   not using the HTTP status code to indicate the blocking or takedown
   of specific content.

8.  Trends and observations

   -  The majority of instance of HTTP status code 451 provide no
      explanation in the response body.

   -  There have been found several cases of servers serving HTTP status
      code 451 with redirect another server with a central warning
      message of a blocking authority.

   -  A registrar serves HTTP status code 451 when a registrant did not
      pay their domain fees.

   -  There are significant observations of server serving HTTP status
      code 451 based on geoIP (especially for gambling sites).

   -  There are different understandings of the 'blocked-by' field as
      defined in RFC7725.  Some people interpret is as the entity that
      is doing the blocking, others are interpreting it at the authority
      responsible for ordering the blocking.

   -  HTTP Status Code 451 is thusfar only served by hosts, not by
      intermediaries.

9.  Potential negative or positive impacts

   -  [RFC7725] specifies a status code for web resources that are
      blocked for legal reasons.  The HTTP status code 451 is designed
      to enable content providers and intermediaries (including ISPs and
      search engines) to notify users that their access to specific web
      resources has been blocked for legal reasons.  The standard also
      recommends that the notification include an explanation.  This is
      important because this is the detail the user needs to be able to
      understand why access has been blocked, and if desired, to take
      action to challenge the blocked access.  It also helps content
      servers and intermediaries who have been required to block access
      to notify users who directed that access by blocked.

   -  Also, as the 451 status code is machine-readable, researchers and
      others could use web crawlers to identity which blocked URLs or
      sub-resources use error code 451.  This data could be used to
      produce a searchable open repository of all known error code 451
      instances.  This information could then be used to map the blocked



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      Web and to analyze the explanations, looking for trends and
      anomalies.  For example, one day there might be an answer to the
      question - "how much content is blocked for IPR reasons?"

   -  The 451 status code can also be used for encrypted webpages, which
      is significant as encryption on the Web becomes more and more
      prevalent.  A user should be able to see the error code
      irrespective of whether they try to access the content via HTTP or
      HTTPS.

   -  This standard is a prime example of an Internet protocol enabling
      common policy objectives (in this case, transparency) to be
      implemented across the world.  However, as with all IETF
      standards, the implementation of the 451 status code is voluntary.
      So, how widely it is used will likely depend on a number of
      factors, including a legal/political regime that does not penalize
      transparency, the willingness to be transparent and the capability
      to implement.

   -  It is possible that status code 451 code could be used for other
      purposes (e.g. to mislead users as to the reason for the content
      being blocked), especially as "legal reasons" is not defined.

   -  It is also possible that content providers and intermediaries who
      are required to block content for legal reasons to be asked or
      compelled to use another status code (e.g. 404).  In these
      circumstances, content providers and intermediaries should include
      information in their transparency reports to indicate whether this
      is happening, by, for example, stating: "We have/have not been
      required to replace 451 by other status codes."

   -  There may be a temptation in some cases of the implementation of
      status code 451 to include the ability to identify and/or track
      the users that visit a web resource that has been blocked.  This
      raises significant privacy issues.

   -  The usage of HTTP status code 451 might lead to an increase in
      blocking because it makes analyzing compliance easier.

10.  What are features of a blocking reporting infrastructure that would
     be useful?

   -  The reporting format needs to cover information enough to satisfy
      transparency and offer insight about possible misuse of 451 error
      as a vehicle for censorship.

   -  Transparency requirement will be better served through
      standardization of fields and descriptions.  Currently many



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      implementations for HTTP status code 451 do not provide the reason
      for blocking.  This could be attributed to the fact that the
      different needs are not sufficiently documented in RFC7725.  This
      could be fixed by adding fields in the header.  Useful
      categorization fields to accurately describe content blocked by
      legal reasons are:

   - Identification of the legal source on which the blocking request is
   based.

   - Identification of the complainant/requestor if is an institution
   (not if individual because of privacy concerns).  It could be useful
   to identify in this field if the request comes from a private or
   public entity, and in if there is a judicial order involved, or a law
   enforcement or other type of governmental request.

   - Description of blocked content (example: 'Non-consensual sexually
   explicit imagery').  It could be helpful to have suggested fields
   that standardize type of content in order to make easier the analysis
   and the evaluation about eventual challenge of the use of error 451
   for the specific content removal.

   - Determination of the geographical scope of the blocking.
   Increasingly blocks are being implemented at the level of the city or
   province.  Therefore country codes may not be sufficient to describe
   the geographical scope.

   - Date of block order and time-period for which the block has to be
   enforced.

   - Date of start serving HTTP status code 451.

   - Link to the final decision (if available).  Again this should only
   be the case when the complainant is not an individual.

   - Contact information for relevant authority for the purposes of
   verification of procedural stage and appeal or redress opportunities.

11.  What features of blocking events are supported by the existing 451
     status code, and what features do we need to add?

   -  Guidance on the representation of HTTP status code for
      subresources in browsers

   -  Guidance on the implementation of HTTP status code 451 could lead
      to an increase in adoption.  RFC7725 provides high level advice
      but still leaves space for interpretation.  An implementation




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      guide in conjunction with an adoption campaign might lead to
      increased adoption.

   -  [RFC7725] does not clarify whether HTTP Status Code 451 is only
      meant for respones to GET/HEAD requests or also for POST/HEAD
      requests.

   -  Guidance on a HTTP link header to indicate that a resources that
      is linked on the page, but not loaded, is no longer available for
      legal reasons.

12.  Appendix: Legal Realities

   In the light of the use cases outlined above underneath we are
   providing an overview of legal frameworks in a number of countries
   that could be used to make a blocking request.  This is to show that
   a reference to a the description of blocked content, the legal source
   on which the blocking order or request is based and the authority
   that is makes the order or request is crucial in understanding the
   context and nature of the blockage.

13.  Russia

   Blocking by the government:

13.1.  Federal Law of 27 July 2006

   Law No. 149-FZ on Information, Information Technologies and
   Protection of Information and its amendments:

   -  "Blacklist" law 139-FZ (2012) - allowing to block websites if they
      appear to have dangerous information for children such as
      information about suicide and drugs.  The blocking was often done
      by keyword so as a result one of the biggest wiki sites in Russia
      (Lukmore) was accused of drugs propaganda, an online encyclopedia
      (Absurdopedia) was accused of suicide propaganda and an online
      game was blocked because on it's forum somebody used a word
      "drug".

   -  "Anti-pirate" law 187-FZ (2013) - easier way for the government to
      block access to websites if they are suspected in any wrongdoing.
      The amendment also allows blocking by IP address.  Leads to the
      blockage of portals such as OpenSharing.org

   -  The law 398-FZ on immediate blockage of websites at the request of
      Prosecutor General (2013).





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   -  "Bloggers' amendment" 97-FZ (2014) - bloggers with more than 3000
      need to register as mass media ("information distributors") and
      have the same responsibilities (including on what their readers
      post in comments).

   -  Data localization law 242-FZ (2015) all companies collecting
      personal data of the Russian citizens must store that information
      on the servers within Russia

   -  The laws against extremism that have been updated throughout the
      past 5 years expanding the term "extremism" and making the
      punishment tougher (jail terms for posting and reposting) as well
      as blocking.  These laws have been used widely after the conflict
      in Ukraine.  Some people got jail sentences and resources were
      being blocked for spreading information sympathizing with the
      Ukrainian side.  Such laws are particularly vague and "extremism"
      is very laxly defined.  For example, "...extremist materials, as
      well as information propagating racial, national or religious
      hatred or enmity or hatred towards any social group."

13.2.  "Yarovaya laws"

   This law was approved by the Parliament and, if passed, will oblige
   messaging apps to store messaging history and decrypt messages at
   prosecutors' request.

14.  Chile

14.1.  Blocking by courts

   The Law No. 20.435 (Copyright Act reform from 2010) contains a notice
   and take down procedure, for copyright infringements under which a
   court order is required -instead of a private notice like happens in
   the DMCA- to have content taken down.  A Supreme Court decision from
   2016 held that it was possible to request a news oulet to remove
   content in its website to enforce the constitutional right of
   privacy, when the data is no longer relevant and it availability on
   the network cause harm to the data subject.  The case was
   controversial because the information was about a public servant
   condemned in a pedophilia case.  This decision has been used to
   enforce a kind of 'right to be forgotten' for lower courts since the
   Supreme Court decision, but there is a lack of general legislation
   that clarify this cause of removals.  On the other hand, the Law No.
   20.453 tackles intermediary non-interference from the perspective of
   users by adding to the general rules within the General
   Telecommunications Act (Law No 18.168) new rules for internet service
   providers.  Among those rules the internet service providers "shall
   not block or interfere in any way with the rights of the user to use



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   any content, application or service on the internet; but they may
   take traffic management measures or block contents upon user requests
   (and to their cost)".

15.  Iran

15.1.  Blocking by government

   The Committee Charged with Determining Offensive Content (CCDOC) is
   the official authority on censorship and blocking of web content in
   Iran.  The Supreme Council of Cyberspace (SCC), established in 2012,
   develops policies related to cyberspace governance.  However,
   blocking and filtering directives originate from various levels of
   the government, including through direct orders by the judiciary
   independent of the SCC and CCDOC.  Other organizations involved in
   the censorship process include the Iranian Cyber Police (FATA) and
   the Telecommunication Company of Iran.  By national law, the
   Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI) is the exclusive provider of
   Internet bandwidth in the country.  All ISPs have to purchase
   bandwidth from TCI and are legally bound to use censoring software.
   Such a system enables a centralized filtering program for all
   Internet traffic in the country.

15.2.  Blocking by courts

   In Iran, freedom of expression is regulated by the Penal Code and the
   Press Law of 1986.  The Press Law was amended in 2000 to mandate that
   publishing online without a license was grounds for blocking,
   effectively censoring services such as Google, Facebook and Twitter.
   Iran also has Internet-specific laws, such as the 2001 resolution
   called "Regulations and Conditions Related to Computerized
   Information Networks" that ordered that ISPs remove 'offensive'
   websites and mandated the use of filtering technology.  The main law
   in terms of applicability to Internet censorship is the Computer
   Crimes Law (CCL) of 2009.  CCL prescribes articles that provide for
   content-based restrictions on the Internet usage of Iranian citizens.
   Articles 21 through 23, in particular, hold ISPs liable for filtering
   content and reporting illegal material (as described in the articles)
   to a 'web crimes committee' made up of government officials.  ISPs
   are also required to store usage data and logs about visited web
   pages for a window of at least six months.  It is worth noting that
   none of the terms used in the CCL are defined strictly, potentially
   over-broadening its scope.  There have been many cases of Iranian
   bloggers being prosecuted for violation of censorship laws.  National
   Internet Project: The Iranian government has been working towards the
   creation of a National Internet Network which would domestically host
   all accessible Internet content, isolating Iranian citizens from the
   World Wide Web. Implementation of the national network would make it



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   easier for the government to block services and web pages through
   measures such as intelligent filtering.  Already the use of social
   networking platforms such as Facebook, Instagram and Viber is heavily
   monitored and controlled.

16.  India

16.1.  Blocking by the government

   Under Section 69A of Information Technology Act 2000, the executive
   branch of the government has "the power to issue directions for
   blocking for public access of any information through any computer
   Resource".  According to the law, any person can send a block request
   to a Nodal Officer.  These Nodal Officers should be designated in all
   government entities to deal with block requests.  The request is then
   approved by the state or central Chief Secretary.  This step is not
   required if the Nodal Officer has initiated the blocking procedure
   without any complainant.  The request is then forward to the head of
   CERT-IN.  If it is not a public emergency, the persons or
   intermediaries should be given 48 hours to respond.  But this is not
   required if the emergency provision has been invoked, but the block
   list still has to be reviewed by "Committee for Examination of
   Request" within 48 hours after the block been issued.  The block
   lists are usually issued directly to ISPs and are marked confidential
   and are implemented unevenly with some ISPs providing sparse details
   if users try to access the blocked resources and other ISPs returning
   a 404 Error Code.

16.2.  Blocking by courts

   Increasingly Indian courts are issuing ex-parte John Doe orders for
   website blocking.  These orders can be issued by courts for any
   illegal content.  There are around 30 different laws that place
   reasonable restrictions on the right to free speech in India.  For
   example: The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of
   Atrocities) Act, 1989, The Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation
   and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994 and The Juvenile Justice Act,
   2000.  Some of these laws have multiple provisions that regulate
   speech for ex. the Information Technology Act has 6 sections and the
   Indian Penal Code has 10 sections.  Once a court order has been
   obtained, the order can be sent to Secretary of the Department of
   Electronics and Information Technology who will then forward it to
   ISPs.  Or alternatively complainants could also send court orders
   directly to ISPs without following the procedure described above.







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16.3.  Takedowns by web sites

   Under Section 79 of the Information Technology Act 2000, both the
   government and private parties can send take-down notices to web
   sites.  Intermediaries can ignore private party take-downs without
   losing immunity but take-down notices from the government have to be
   complied with.  Under Section 52(1)(c) of the Indian Copyright Act,
   take-down notices can be sent to websites who are engaged in
   infringement but they need to be followed by court orders otherwise
   the content can be reinstated.

17.  United States of America

17.1.  Section 512 of the DMCA

   The United States Digital Millenium Copyright Act (DMCA) has a
   provision that has greatly shaped the landscape of online content
   [Section 512 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act"">Quilter].  Section 512 of the DMCA has a "notice and takedown"
   procedure that copyright holders can use to assert that a piece of
   copyrighted material has been posted against their wishes and that it
   should be taken down.  Under this provision, after a website operator
   receives a 512 notice, it must: 1) remove the material
   "expeditiously"; 2) notify the poster that someone has alleged
   copyright infringement in that material and that the material has
   been removed; and 3) send any "counternotices" from the poster -
   objections from the poster to claims of copyright - to the original
   complaintant.  The complaintant must notify the website operator that
   it has filed a lawsuite within 10-14 days or the website can
   reinstate the removed material.

17.2.  Other US-based forms of takedown

   There are a number of other legal methods that are used with much
   less frequency in the United States:

   -  Defamation: Under US law, balancing the freedom of speech in the
      US constitution is also a right to be free from untrue attacks on
      one's reputation.  Threats and lawsuits are regularly filed
      claiming statements are untrue and reputationally damaging.

   -  Rights of publicity: The United States has a number of States that
      recognize a "right of publicity", typically a right enjoyed by
      celebrities and public figures to limit the ability of others to
      use their likeness, name, or recognizable features for commercial
      purposes.

   -  Non-consensual sexually-explicit imagery: A number of content
      providers and online content hosts (intermediaries) have begun to



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      honor request to take down material that may include sexually-
      explicit imagery that was either captured without consent or
      shared online without consent (cite).

   -  Mugshot images: Images taken in the process of a law enforcement
      arrest or detention have increasingly been subject to state-based
      regulation in the United States, recognizing that people may
      suffer undue reputational harm from the display and searchability
      of this kind of content [ElManzalawy].

   -  Trademark-based takedowns: A US law, The Anti-cybersquatting
      Consumer Protection Act (ACPA), protects the owners of trademarks
      from abuse by entities "cybersquatting" on domain names that
      contain their trademarks (cybersquatting is proactively
      registering a domain name to demand substantial fees from the
      trademark holder).  Trademark holders can use the remedies in this
      law to request cancellation or transfer of the domain name as well
      as damages.

   -  E-Commerce Patents: Because software can be patented in the United
      States, there are regular claims made by patent holders against
      online content and services that they claim infringe their patent.

18.  Informative References

   [Censys]   Durumeric, Z., Adrian, D., Mirian, A., Bailey, M., and J.
              Halderman, "80.http.get.status_code: 451 - Censys", 2017,
              <https://www.censys.io/
              ipv4?q=80.http.get.status_code%3A+451>.

   [ElManzalawy]
              El Manzalawy, M., "Should the Mugshot Industry be
              Regulated? States Push Legislation to Protect Individuals
              from Disproportionate Reputational Harm", 2017,
              <https://www.lumendatabase.org/blog_entries/789>.

   [Facebook]
              Facebook, inc., "How do I add or edit country or age
              restrictions for my Page?", n.d.,
              <https://developer.github.com/changes/2016-03-17-the-451-
              status-code-is-now-supported/>.

   [Github]   Torikian, G., "The 451 status code is now supported",
              2016, <https://developer.github.com/changes/2016-03-17-
              the-451-status-code-is-now-supported/>.






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   [Quilter]  Urban, J., "Efficient Process or Chilling Effects?
              Takedown Notices Under Section 512 of the Digital
              Millennium Copyright Act", 2005,
              <https://www.law.berkeley.edu/files/
              Chilling_Effects_Report.pdf>.

   [Reddit]   Turkey Blocks, "LGBTI sections disappear as Reddit
              complies with 100% of Turkey censorship orders", 2017,
              <https://turkeyblocks.org/2017/04/04/lgbti-sections-
              disappear-as-reddit-complies-with-turkey-censorship-
              orders/>.

   [RFC7725]  Bray, T., "An HTTP Status Code to Report Legal Obstacles",
              RFC 7725, DOI 10.17487/RFC7725, February 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7725>.

   [Twitter]  Twitter, inc., "Country withheld content", n.d.,
              <https://support.twitter.com/articles/20169222#>.

   [Youtube]  Wikipedia, "Censorship of YouTube", 2017,
              <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Censorship_of_YouTube>.

Authors' Addresses

   Sunil Abraham
   CIS India

   EMail: sunil@cis-india.org


   Maria Paz Canales
   Derechos Digitales

   EMail: mariapaz@derechosdigitales.org


   Joseph Lorenzo Hall
   CDT

   EMail: joe@cdt.org


   Olga Khrustaleva
   American University

   EMail: ok4193a@student.american.edu





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   Niels ten Oever
   ARTICLE 19

   EMail: niels@article19.org


   Christine Runnegar
   ISOC

   EMail: runnegar@isoc.org


   Shivan Kaul Sahib
   Cisco Systems

   EMail: shivankaulsahib@gmail.com



































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